Bathing/Showering on Erev Shabbat:
It is permitted to bathe/shower on the eve of Shabbat Hazon, even for those who are stringent
and do not bathe/shower during the days preceding Tisha b’Av.

Sephardi custom permits bathing/
showering as usual; Ashkenazi custom permits bathing/showering in a manner in which one does
not derive pleasure but one need not suffer.


Shabbat Meals and Learning Torah:
The halachic principle that there is no mourning on Shabbat, applies even when Tisha b’Av falls
on Shabbat (and the fast is postponed to Sunday) and, therefore, on Shabbat one may eat meat
and drink wine, even to the degree of a feast of King Solomon.

Similarly, it is permitted to sing
zmirot on Shabbat as there is no mourning on Shabbat. Learning Torah on Shabbat is permitted
as usual.


Seudah Shlishit:
One may eat Seudah Shlishit as on every Shabbat, however, there is a disagreement among the
poskim regarding whether one may eat meat and drink wine or even whether one must eat meat
and drink wine. The Mishna Berura ruled (552, 23) that one may eat Seudah Shlishit as usual and
may not specifically refrain from eating meat because then it will appear like an observance of
mourning on Shabbat.

In Igrot Moshe (O”C section 4, subsection 112) the ruling is that even one
who does not generally eat meat and drink wine at Seudah Shlishit throughout the year may eat
meat and drink wine at this particular Seudah Shlishit.

One must, however, stop eating before
sunset (shki’ah) and this does not represent a contradiction to the status of Shabbat as there is no
essential Shabbat requirement to continue to eat after sunset. Similarly, one should refrain from
singing joyous songs after sunset.


Twilight – From Sunset until Dark (Emergence of the Stars – Tzait HaKochavim):
The twilight period is deemed an intermediate period in that on the one hand it is still considered
Shabbat yet on the other hand the obligations of Tisha b’Av have already commenced. From a
halachic perspective, we are in doubt whether this period is considered day or night (bein
hashmashot). There is a mitzvah of adding to Shabbat (Tosefet Shabbat) at the onset of Shabbat
as well as at the conclusion of Shabbat.

Consequently, the minutes immediately after tzait
hakochavim constitute a period during which both Shabbat and the prohibitions of the fast
coexist.

Accordingly, during this period. one does not yet commence the overt mourning customs
of Tisha b’Av, but does refrain from activities whose absence would not necessarily be perceived
as indicating mourning, including: eating, drinking, washing, and anointing. Nevertheless, one

who uses the restroom during the bein hashmashot period washes hands as usual as refraining
from washing hands would constitute observing a mourning practice on Shabbat.


Only after the emergence of three medium-sized stars (tzait hakochavim) plus an additional few
minutes of Tosefet Shabbat does one recite “Hamavdil Bein Kodesh l’Chol (“He who
distinguishes between Holy and mundane”) and then change from Shabbat clothes to everyday
clothes (one should change into clothes that were worn during the preceding week as we refrain
from wearing freshly-laundered clothes) and change from leather to non-leather shoes.

Some
have the custom to remove their leather shoes immediately after shki’ah because they assert that
doing so does not affect the honor of Shabbat as there is no requirement to wear shoes on
Shabbat altogether, however, if the shoe removal would be perceived as a mourning custom it
should not be done. The prevailing custom is to not remove/change shoes until after the Shabbat
has concluded.


Maariv and Havdala:
It is customary to delay maariv in order to allow time for the necessary preparations for Tisha
b’Av.
In Shemoneh Esrei one inserts the usual havdala of “Ata Chonatanu” and some opinions suggest
that women should also be sure to daven maariv in order to say havdala. A woman who does not
daven maariv fulfills the obligation of havdala by saying “Baruch hamavdil”.


On motzaei Shabbat we say the bracha on the havdala candle as it is an acknowledgement of the
creation of fire on motzaei Shabbat and is not dependent on making a bracha on wine. The
custom is to make the bracha on the candle at the end of maariv before the reading of Eicha.
No bracha is recited on b’samim because the smelling of b’samim is intended to ease the pain of
the neshama yeteira as it departs on motzaei Shabbat and on Tisha b’Av it is not appropriate to
mitigate pain.


One who is ill and must eat on Tisha b’Av must make havdala before eating, and it is best if the
havdala is made on a beverage that is considered “mashkeh medinah” (preferably an alcoholic
beverage such as beer) or coffee or grape juice which is not considered a joyous beverage. If
there is a minor present it is best that the minor drink the havdala beverage rather than the person
who is ill. However, a minor who eats on Tisha b’Av need not make or hear havdala.


Conclusion of the Fast:
Before eating or drinking, havdala must be recited over a cup of wine (or other qualifying
beverage), including the bracha on the wine and the bracha of hamavdil (the preliminary verses
are not recited).
It is customary to say kiddush l’vana after maariv at the end of the fast.


The mourning customs continue until the 10th of Av. There are opinions that claim that only
eating meat and drinking wine is still prohibited but not the rest of the restrictions. If its Sheaht

HADCHACK-one can be lenient.!

With the blessings of the “Consoler of Zion and Builder of Jerusalem”

Rav Shai Finkelstein Rav Kehillat Nitzanim

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